Teacher Resources for Phonological Awareness
The International Dyslexia Association’s definition for Dyslexia, adopted in 2002, states dyslexia is “characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction”. Since the National Reading Panel report (2000) was released more primary classroom teachers and literacy specialists have included phonemic awareness instruction as a necessary component of their reading instruction. However, Dr. David Kilpatrick’s book entitled Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties (2016) educates his readers that phonemic awareness instruction which typically concludes at the end of first grade with establishing students’ phoneme blending and segmenting skills is not sufficient, but must extend to include the most advanced levels of phoneme manipulation (phoneme substitution, phoneme deletion, and reversing phonemes) particularly for low achieving readers. Kilpatrick states research seems to suggest that phonological manipulation tasks are the best measures of phonological awareness skills needed for reading because they are the best predictors of word-level reading proficiency (p. 155) and consequently, phonological manipulation training was found to be far more beneficial in correcting reading difficulties than segmentation or blending training (p. 165).
Dr. Kilpatrick states typically achieving readers continue to acquire advanced levels of phonemic awareness independently through third grade, while low achieving readers often never master these advanced levels without explicit instruction. Furthermore, Dr. Kilpatrick states in order for advanced phonemic awareness to support word-level reading, students must establish these advanced levels of phonemic awareness to the point of automaticity. Students who respond accurately, but not automatically, to higher level phonemic awareness tasks may actually be relying upon mentally spelling the word prior to responding.
In chapter six, Dr. Kilpatrick presents the reader with valuable information to consider when assessing and interpreting phonological awareness skills. Universal screeners, that include segmentation tasks, are not sensitive enough to identify many of the students with poor phonological awareness.(p. 161) In fact, segmentation tasks are often not included beyond first grade in most universal screeners. Dr. Kilpatrick further discusses two major phonological awareness standardized batteries, including the CTOPP-2 and the PAT-2, both of which are untimed measures. Dr. Kilpatrick has developed the Phonological Awareness Screening Test (PAST), a criterion referenced test, and suggests this assessment be administered after the CTOPP-2, PAT-2, or other phonological awareness subtests from achievement batteries (p. 168). The information gleaned from standardized assessments can be supplemented with the PAST which provides a timing element. This test assesses students’ correct scores, as well as automatic scores, associated with manipulation tasks at each of the hierarchical levels of phonological awareness from the syllable level, onset-rime level, the basic phoneme level to the advanced phoneme level. There are five forms of this assessment allowing for progress monitoring. The PAST is free and available online along with its administration protocol.
Once a student’s level of automaticity is determined by the PAST, resources to teach these advanced levels of phonemic awareness skills with automaticity are available to support educators in a very user-friendly resource entitled Equipped for Reading Success: A Comprehensive, Step-by-Step Program for Developing Phonemic Awareness and Fluent Word Recognition (Kilpatrick, 2016). This resource provides the reader with additional background information about the importance of phonemic awareness skills, as well as, one minute activities to support the incremental, and hierarchical, stages necessary to establish advanced phonemic awareness skills. Students enjoy these quick drills and feel successful as they progress through the levels.
For additional information an hour long, on-demand webinar, entitled Recent Advances in Understanding Word-Level Reading Problems: Implications for Assessment and Effective Intervention, is available under the Resources tab at corelearn.com.
As a literacy specialist, I highly recommend Dr. Kilpatrick’s book, the PAST and his companion resource. Together these professional resources make a very compelling argument to change reading instruction and intervention practices to include targeted advanced phonological awareness instruction; including phoneme substitution, deletion and manipulation skills necessary to provide a solid foundation for successful word-level reading.